Noah Wardrip-Fruin

Noah Wardrip-Fruin is a digital media writer, artist, and scholar with a particular interest in fiction and playability. His writing/art has been presented by galleries, arts festivals, scientific conferences, DVD magazines, and the Whitney and Guggenheim museums. He has recently edited two books: First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game (2004, with Pat Harrigan) and The New Media Reader (2003, with Nick Montfort), both from MIT Press. Now at the University of California, San Diego, he has previously taught in Brown University's Literary Arts program, the University of Baltimore's School of Information Arts and Technologies, and New York University's Graduate Film and Television program. He is a Vice President of the Electronic Literature Organization and maintains a widely read blog.

Essays by this author



First Person, second section: What is Ludology? Editors Pat Harrigan and Noah Wardrip-Fruin see a disciplinary shift away from ill-advised analogies toward analyses of the gaming situation itself.

Game Theories


It’s “Game Time.” Here in section four we see what the dynamics of time and space have to do with the games people play.

Hypertexts and Interactives


The parallels (and oppositions) between hypertext and AI are brought out in section five.

Beyond Chat


The subject of conversation enters the conversation that is First Person, here in section seven.